The Islamic Republic of Iran is a presidential Republic where the president, who also covers the position of the president of the board of the ministers, is directly elected by those who have the right to vote (men and women who have completed 16 years of age) for a four years incumbency. According to the Iranian constitution, the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran (the authority of religious jurisprudent) is named by the sug gestion of the elites assembly. The supreme leader of the country is above of the three powers of the state. Watches over its operation and delineate its orientation. In the meantime, the supreme leader of the country, is the commander in chief of the armed forces.
The existing supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran (2000) is the ayatollah Ali Khamenei, already chosen by the elites assembly as the supreme leader of the country after the late Imam Ruhollah Khomeini.
The Iranian constitution delineates clear distinction among the three powers of the state. The head of the executive power is the president of the republic.
The legislative power is delegated to the Iranian parliament that is unicameral with 290 parliamentary elected members by a unanimous vote.
The judicial system is based on the principles of the Islamic law (shariat) and is indipendent from the other two powers of the state.
Among the other institutions is the guardian council. That matches the compatibility of the laws ratified by the parliament with the constitution and the shariat principles and values.
The other important institution is the expediency assembly whose members are appointed by the supreme leader, to restore the divergences between the parliament and the guardian council and traces the general lines of the politics of the state based on the supreme leader indications.
The existing president of the Islamic Republic of Iran is Seyed Mohammad Khatami, elected in 1997 to wide majority. He is a prominent Shiah that has spent his life between the philosophical searches and the religious schools up to high level. He has been the titular of the desk of philosophy to the university of Tehran for years and author of numerous books one of which “religion liberty and democracy” published in Italy in 1999 (edition Laterza). It is the first one to be translated in an European country.
The Iranian flag
The flag of the Islamic Republic of Iran introduces three colors: white, green and red, sets on three horizontal parts. Using the Iranian art of calligraphy the national banner is ornamented with the words of Allah-o- Akbar (God is great) along the central edges of the bands green and reds and the word Allah (The God) in the center of the white band.
The religion of Iran is Islam customary shiah, that professes faith in the 12 Imam (Ja’Fari). Islam is Arabic word that points out the ” subjugation ” to the wish of God (Allah), and it gives the name to the religion monotheist in the VII century by prophet Mohammad. The followers of the Islam are called Moslems. God, after having created the world, has sent on the earth his prophets, the Mosès and Jesus, to drive the man to up to the arrival of Mohammad that has noticed the perfect word of God.
The Places of pilgrimage
The vast Iranian territory entertains numerous places of cult and pilgrimage. The most important Islamic mausoleums, that every year meet million of Iranian pilgrims and foreigners, are placed to Mashhad, Qom, Shiraz and Tehran. The sanctuary of the Imam Reza, eighth Imam of the shiah, holy shrine and islocated in Mashhad; and shrine of Hazrat Ma’Sumeh, the sister of the Imam Reza, in Qom. The sanctuary of Ahmad Ibn Muse called Shah -e- Cheraq, (also called the Mosque of the Mirrors), the brother of the Imam Reza, in Shiraz. The mausoleum of the Imam Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, next to the cemetery of Behesht -e- Zahra near Tehran. Among the non Islamic places of cult, some are particularly ancient, as the temples of the fire zoroastriani near Yazd and Kerman and some churches, in the provinces of Esfahan and the Azarbaijan.
The religious minorities
In Iran there is a population of 35000 a Hebrews, of which the greatest part is composed by active members. They have proper 10 centers of education, 3 synagogues, as well as own hospitals, schools and houses for elderly.
Currently they are more than 100.000 the resident in Iran. They have two representatives in Parliament where they enjoy some same rights of exercise of the position of all the other members. The Christian community in Iran is composed from Armenian and Assiri. The Armenian ones they have more than 30 centers of education with around 14.000 students. They Publish a daily newspaper in Armenian language from more than 60 years, they Have 50 active churches for their profession of faith. Their presence in Iran goes up again to three thousand years ago. The live in 11 regions. To the Assiris it belongs the most ancient church of the world that belonged to the 1 century of the Christian era. The lessons of religious education in the schools of these minorities is founded on the principles of their religions. The rights of the religious minorities in Iran. In the Islam the rights of the minorities are considered with particular attention. In the Constitution in this respect two articles, one of which is related to the religious minorities officially recognized and the other in general to all those people that not muslims.
The zoroastrianis, the Hebrews, the Christians are the only ones recognized. They are free, in the limits fixed by the law to develop their own ceremonies, religious.
According to the prescription of the Koranic verse «God doesn’t prohibit to you to treat with Justice those people who they have not fought against your religion and you/they have not chased you from your houses. God loves correct people. The government of the draws Islamic Republic all with goodness and justice in the respect of their human rights. This principle is valid verse those people who doesn’t make an attempt to the Islam and the Islamic Republic.