The vastness of the Iranian territory, 1.648.195 square kilometers, approximately five times and a half larger than Italian, it has four regular seasons offering panoramas and possibility of excursions.
Iran bathers in north by the waters of the Caspian sea (that it is 28 meters under the level of the sea) and in south on the Persian gulf; in west confines with the highland of the Anatolia and in east it continues toward the steppes of Asia. The Iranian territory, is characterized by two mountainous chains and from a vast desert central zone.
The chain of the Alborzes mountains, in north, that is strethed from east toward west with peaks more than 5 thousand meters height (Damavand summit, in northeast of Tehran reaches the 5671 meters). The chain of the Zagroses mountains, in east, that stretched from north toward south with tops around the 4 thousand meters (Zard Kuh-and Bakhtiari is the tallest peak 4309 meters), they contain the great Iranian highland with the deserts of the Dasht-and-Kavir and of the Dasht-and-Lut from the impressive panorama, and with fertile areas as that of Esfahan, where water is abundant.
There are a greate number of islands in the Persian Gulf such as Qheshm, Kish and Khark.
The territory is rich of oil, gas and mineral resources whilst suppering of water scarcity there are dams and dike: numerous built on the rivers, among which we can name the Karun (920 kms), the Sefid-Rud (795 kms) and the Zaiandeh-Rud (405 kms). which flow inside the territory pouring into the Persian gulf, in the Caspian sea, or in the lakes, (the greatest lakes are the Urumieh, the Neiriz, the Hamun and the Parishan).
To bring water in the great cities, since 2500 years in Persia there has been a technique applied so-called Qanats (underground channels, that work as a sophisticated system) and Iran has exported this technique to the whole Middle East, the North, Africa and Spain. Currently the length of the Qanats reaches the 40.000 kilometers of underground canalizations linked channels.
On the highland wheat, bowline, corn, cotton, sugar beet, grape, melons and vegetable. Along the coast of the Persian gulf the dates are the principal crop. The warm one, rainy coast of the Caspian, that is the most fertile region in Iran, produces sugar reed, tobacco and a great variety of fruits. Its forests furnish excellent lumber and charcoal to burn. The conspicuous fish patrimony of the caspian sea is divided among Iran, Russia, Azarbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. It is of the Caspian the sturgeon that furnishes the famous caviar, one of the more esteemed in the world.
The oil is the first natural resource of the country. The principal wells are found the east of the Persian gulf. From here the pipelines bring the raw one in the refineries or to the terminals on the Persian gulf. The Iranian reserves of natural gas, the second resource, is the most conspicuous in the world. Other first subjects are the mineral iron, chrome, copper, lead, zinc, sulphur, uranium and coal of excelled quality.
The Iranian spirit is expressed with a lot of creativeness in the art and in the literature during all the phases of the historical evolution of the Country. The first examples of the Iranian art go up again to the IV millennium A.C. They are works in terracotta decorated to geometric motives or animals. In the following periods, from the Elamitis to the middle ones, from the Achemenidis to the Sassanidis, up to the Islam, the artistic works are evolved and they are diversified, acquiring great expressive strength and beauty.
The modern Iranian craftsmanship preserves all the elements of the teachers of the past, enriched by the creativeness of today’s teachers. Examples of the the Iranian craftsmanship are the khatam (a workmanship to inlay that produces mosaic of small dimensions but of great Precision), the Ghalam kar (plotted in), the Ceramics and the objects in copper and silver, the kilims and the carpets, the miniatures on bone of camel.
The Iranian carpet is perhaps the most famous product of the Iranian handicrafts.
This object, that is of domestic and ornamental use in the Iranian houses, goes up again perhaps to the achemenide era and its shine, reinvigorated during the millennia, has conquered all over the world the lovers of the beauty. The Iranian carpets, plotted in esteemed wool and by vegetable shades, are recognized in base to their city of origin as Kashan, Yazd, Kerman, Ardakan, Esfahan, Tabriz and Qom. However some carpets are also denominated in relationship to the tribe of the nomad that produces them: Bakhtiari, Turkaman and Qashghai.
There is 43.450 kilometers of roads, of which 11.000 asphalted and 21.000 with compressed gravel. After the Islamic revolution Iran can count on 140.000 kilometers of roads, of which 68.000 asphalted. And the Country is in continuous development. The railroad has 5800 kilometers of rail and connects Iran with Turkey, Pakistan and the Azarbaijan, one of the republics of the ex Soviet Union. The principals Iranian harbors are in the Persian gulf. The airport Mehrabad of Tehran is international. In 30 kilometers from the capital, the Imam Khomeini airport that will be the greatest in the middel east, is under construction. The most important cities have an airport with good connections aerial insides. The flag carrier is Iran Air, that assures international and domestic connections with the principal Iranian cities and with the world. Other companies complete the coverage of the whole national territory with flights in the 25 inside airports.